Archive for the ‘Cosmetic Surgery’ Category

Female Pattern Baldness

March 3, 2018

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By Michel Waugh

Female pattern baldness a.k.a. alopecia in women is the most common form of hair problem that women come across. It involves a typical hair loss pattern, resulting from hormones, aging and genetic predisposition.

Hair loss pattern resulting from alopecia in women

Unlike in men, female pattern baldness does not cause hair loss in a well-defined pattern. The hair starts thinning all over the head though there is no hair line receding. It is rare for alopecia in women to result in total baldness.

In the case of females, the scalp hair loss may begin at any age though usually after 40.

The patterns of female pattern baldness can vary considerably in appearance and may include:

–Diffuse thinning all over the scalp often with more noticeable thinning toward the back of the scalp.

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–Diffuse thinning all over the scalp with more noticeable thinning toward the front of the scalp but not involving the frontal hair line.

–Diffuse thinning all over the scalp with more noticeable thinning toward the front of the scalp, involving and sometimes breaching the frontal hairline.

Symptoms of alopecia in women

In normal condition a woman tends to lose around 100-125 hairs per day. Losing more hair than that indicates that the condition is not normal.

The following two conditions indicate alopecia in women –

–Hair thinning over the entire head

–Hair loss at the crown or hair line, from mild to moderate

Causes of female pattern baldness

The disease is triggered by the presence of a male hormone called testosterone in female body. Testosterone is produced by androgen hormone.

Certain women are decidedly more sensitive to testosterone than others. This sensitivity results in hair thinning on their scalp. Testosterone interacts with the enzyme 5 alpha reductase produced by the body. The interaction causes the production of DHT within the hair follicle.

DHT causes production of shorter and finer hairs. When DHT is not received well by hair follicles, it causes reduced blood supply and it causes hair thinning on the scalp.

Diagnosis of female pattern baldness

Women tend to have less obvious hair loss patterns than men and they face non-pattern hair loss more frequently than men. Diagnosis of female hair loss should be conducted by a trained and experienced physician.

The physician diagnoses this hair disease on the basis of hair loss appearance and pattern. He also checks whether other possible hair loss causes can be ruled out. He may also go for a skin biopsy or other procedures to diagnose the medical disorders.

Treatment

The diagnosis of female pattern baldness should be followed by a proper treatment. The patient is usually administered Rogaine. Another medicine is Aldactone, which is useful especially for the women experiencing hair fall after menopause. A modern and popular method used in the case of female pattern baldness is hair transplantation.

About the Author: Michel Waugh is a hair care expert. He has done extensive research in the field of female pattern baldness and regularly contributes articles to various medical and hair care magazines. For more information please visit:

hairdiseases.com

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By Nathan Wei

Tendons are ropes of tissue that connect muscles to bones and allow joint motion. When a muscle contracts, the tendon is pulled and the bone that the tendon is connected to moves.

Tendons consist of collagen (mostly type I collagen) and elastin that sit inside a matrix (framework) with collagen accounting for 65-80% and elastin approximately 1-2% of the mass of the tendon.

Collagen and elastin are produced by special cells called tenoblasts and tenocytes. Crosslinks strengthen the collagen and help them form fibrils which are thin fibers. These fibrils are bunched together to form a collagen fiber which is the basic unit of a tendon. The entire tendon is surrounded by a fine connective tissue sheath called epitenon. The actual structure of a tendon is very complex with fibers being oriented horizontally, longitudinally, and diagonally.

As mentioned above, the basic function of a tendon is to transmit the force created by the muscle to the bone, and, in this way, make joint movement possible. Normally, tendon tissue is extremely tough but it can be damaged through excessive shear forces, trauma, and, recently, with certain drugs.

The Food and Drug Administration recently notified the makers of fluoroquinolone antimicrobial drugs for systemic use of the need to add a boxed warning to the prescribing information about the increased risk of developing tendonitis and tendon rupture. In addition, a Medication Guide for patients was also mandated.

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The actual wording of the FDA statement was…

‘Fluoroquinolones are associated with an increased risk of tendinitis and tendon rupture. This risk is further increased in those over age 60, in kidney, heart, and lung transplant recipients, and with use of concomitant steroid therapy. Physicians should advise patients, at the first sign of tendon pain, swelling, or inflammation, to stop taking the fluoroquinolone, to avoid exercise and use of the affected area, and to promptly contact their doctor about changing to a non-fluoroquinolone antimicrobial drug.

Tendinitis and tendon rupture most frequently involves the Achilles tendon, and rupture of the Achilles tendon may require surgical repair. Tendinitis and tendon rupture in the rotator cuff (the shoulder), the hand, the biceps, and the thumb have also been reported. Tendon rupture can occur during or after completion of fluoroquinolone use; cases occurring up to several months after completion of therapy have been reported.

Selection of a fluoroquinolone for the treatment or prevention of an infection should be limited to those conditions that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by bacteria.’

Currently available fluoroquinolone antimicrobial drugs include ciprofloxacin (marketed as Cipro and generic ciprofloxacin), ciprofloxacin extended release (Cipro XR and Proquin XR), gemifloxacin (marketed as Factive), levofloxacin (marketed as Levaquin), moxifloxacin (marketed as Avelox), norfloxacin (marketed as Noroxin), and ofloxacin (marketed as Floxin and generic ofloxacin).

The warnings about fluoroquinolones and adverse effects on tendons applies only to fluoroquinolones for systemic use (e.g., tablets, capsules and injectable formulations); it does not apply to fluoroquinolones for eye or ear use (e.g., eye drops and ear drops).

This danger has been known to be present for approximately 14 years with case reports first surfacing in the 1990’s.

One group of investigators have stated, ‘current exposure to fluoroquinolones increases the risk of Achilles tendon disorders. This finding is in agreement with a smaller study, in which we found an association between tendinitis and fluoroquinolones’ (van der Linden PD, et al. BMJ 2002;324:1306-1307).

Researchers feel that the mechanism is due to a toxic effect on collagen fibers. This may be caused by a substance called matrix metalloproteinase.

Bottom line? Avoid these antibiotics if you have any of the above risk factors!

About the Author: Nathan Wei, MD FACP FACR is a nationally known board-certified rheumatologist. For more info:

Arthritis Treatment

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Tendonitis and PRP

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